Acoustic Sensors for Irrigation Systems


Fresh water is continually challenge by different factors. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of the global freshwater in the world. Thus, having a good irrigation plan would minimize the effect of the lack of freshwater. Humans derive its energy and nutrients from different livestock and crop which consumes water, uses land and energy for production

The use of acoustic sensors is quite new in the field especially with in irrigation systems. Accurate irrigation will help the environment through soil and water conservation efforts. Develop an accurate and low cost rain intensity detection device using acoustic sensors. Integrate the device with GSM module for notification for irrigation schedule. The system will only notify the user when it is time to irrigate. Full automation of the irrigation system will cost a lot resources and time.

Design of Acoustic Sensors for Irrigation System

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based which is easy to programmable software and low-cost hardware. It is board can be connected to different sensors in order to create different kinds of uses especially prototyping. Arduino software (IDE) is written in Java which runs on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux . The software is develop and calibrated by a sound level meter. Initial test should be conducted to assure the accuracy of the development of the instrument. Other related researches gathered general accuracy of 92.90% and 99.80% when identifying the rainfall intensity.

Ambient noise is the sound present in the environment. Audio recordings of ambient noise in the raindrops in the forest is at 600Hz-1200Hz.  There are hopes that someday each specie and other variables will have sound signature.  The setup will have a metal casing to cancel out ambient noise and to amplify the rain impact in the casing. The arduino will have a separate casing which is connected with a solar panel that will power the said instrument. The instrument will also have a GSM module that will transmit data into database to analyzed. Then, it will send SMS to the targeted farmers in the specified area

Field Testing and Computations

The initial moisture and soil texture in the plot should be determined.  Thus, the plot must be maintained at 55% of available moisture. The plot will be artificial irrigated when the net depth of application and net available water is equal. This will trigger the GSM module to send (SMS) notification for the user to irrigate.

Calibration of the Instrument

As the acoustic sensor will detect the decibels, the arduino will convert it to rainfall intensity. The conversion of decibels to rainfall intensity would requisite the corresponding decibels with the mm/min. The  instrument will be calibrated through the Davis Weather Station Pro 2. Another software development will be conducted to correlate decibels and the said rainfall data. The said its instrument will be setup again in order to determine the accuracy.

Automated Irrigation Systems

Due to lack of water and scarcity of land water result the decreasing volume of water on earth there a need for automated or semi-automated irrigation systems. Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil that means depending on the soil type, plant are to be provided with water. Irrigation entails a lot of cost and technical skills to make sure the place is optimally watered. With these new technology, we can assure the success of farmers with less cost. The development of the device will surely aid farmers in analyzing their irrigation needs.

In an occurrence of a rainfall, as the rain drops impacts surface in produces sounds. The higher level of sound intensity produced corresponds to a high rainfall activity. Sound intensity is a measure of the flow of acoustic energy in a sound field . These given sound intensity data are now used in order to detect rain intensity by correlating such. As the rain fall data are determined, the water add in the field is also computed to alter the farmers there is a need for irrigation.