What are Solar Panels and Solar energy?

Solar Panels mimics plants ability to convert solar energy into useful energy. Furthermore, the world captures around 173 x1015 watts or 173 tera watts of solar energy. Solar panels generate energy through sunlight. Moreover, This technology converts sun’s energy into electricity. It is composed of solar cells which is made of silicon. With the photons that hit the solar panel causes the electrons  to move. Indeed, there many times of solar panels which are crystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells and thin-film solar cells.

You might find these terms useful:

  1. Solar constant – The amount f solar energy received per unit of time on a unit area of surface perpendicular to the radiation. Moreover, the outer limit of the atmosphere when the earth is at its mean distance from the sun.
  2. Direct radiation – The solar radiation received by the earth’s surface without having been deflected/ intercepted. However, it can also be absorbed by the atmosphere.
  3. Diffuse radiation – The solar radiation that is first intercepted or absorbed by the atmosphere.
  4. Pyranometer – A instrument for measuring total solar radiation.
  5. Pyrheliometer –An instrument for measuring direct solar radiation
  6. Solar collector – A device that collects solar radiant energy and transform it into some useful forms. Of course, collectors can be flat plate or focusing type.
  7. Photovoltaic cell – A device that converts solar radiation directly into electricity. Moreover, the most common type is single crystal silicon solar cell.


A water pump with 1.9 meter pressure head enough to bring the water to the top part of the aqua phonics system.  Next,water pump will run for 24 hours to maintain good water quality and dissolved oxygen for the system.  For this reason, the assigned agricultural engineer will use a timer in order to cut down the running time of the system by 50 percent. Therefore, the system will run for 30 minutes interval to minimize electrical cost. What is the required solar panel wattage? What is the required size of battery? Since, power required for the pump to run for one hour is 18 watts.

What is the power Requirement for 24 hours operation?

Correction factor (energy lost in the system)

What wattage of the Solar Panels?

Solar Panels are divided the number of hours of solar illumination

Use 70 watts solar panel.

What is battery needed for the solar panel?

Battery capacity is measured in Amp Hours (e.g. 20AH). You need to convert this to Watt Hours by multiplying the AH figure by the battery voltage (e.g. 12V).

Use 24AH battery to operate the water pump.

Do I really able to take all the power from the battery?

Lead acid battery’s will give you around 50% of their rated power. Li-ion battery’s will give you around 80% of their rated power.

Lead acid Computation: 24 AH x 1.5 =36 AH

Lion Battery Computation: 24 AH x 1.2 =28.8 AH


Solar panels for the future

Solar panels are the fuels of the future. Indeed, this technology will soon power most of our appliances, cars and more. . Do you want to cut your bill? Contact your nearest agricultural engineer now. No doubt, you want to have premium service? Then, learn more  about solar panels is one the best investments you could ever have!